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Krasnodar (Russian: Краснода́р) is the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, the most populous southern region of Russia. The population of Krasnodar is about 700,000 people, and it is 18th among the Russia's largest cities.

Krasnodar is situated on the River Kuban, approximately 1000 km (620 miles) south of Moscow, and 80 km (50 miles) north-east of the Black Sea, on the periphery of the Caucasus, and was founded by the Cossacks in 1794 to protect Southern borders of Russia.

History of Krasnodar, Region, General Info

Over one hundred and forty nationalities live together peacefully here. Over 85% of the population is Russian, there are also: Armenians, Georgians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Tatars, and other peoples from the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe.

The original name Yekaterinodar meant "Catherine's Gift" in recognition of the Russian Queen "Catherine The Great". After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the city received it's current name Krasnodar, which means "Beautiful Gift".

Today Krasnodar is a dynamic modern city - major industrial, agricultural, and cultural center in the south of Russia. After Moscow, it is the fastest growing region in Russia.

 

Krasnodar Facts:
Location: Located in the center of the Krasnodar Krai (76,000 sq km) on the Kuban River
Geo Coordinates: 4502'N 3858'E
Population: 800,000 (2007 est.)
Foundation: 1794
Climate: Temperate Continental
UTC/GMT: + 3 hours
Area Code: 8612
Krasnodar Geographical Map

 

Black Sea
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History of Krasnodar

Krasnodar was founded on January 12, 1794 (Gregorian calendar) as Yekaterinodar (Екатеринода́р) by Cossacks, members of military communities, who became known as Kuban Cossacks (Russian: Кубанские кaзаки). From 1860 the main town of Black Sea (Kuban, formerly Zaporozhskie) Cossack forces and Kuban area, the civil city from 1867, and from 1973 - center of Krasnodar Krai.

Military government of the Black Sea Cossack forces on August 15, 1793 decided to "build main town of Ekaterinodar on Karasun pond against oak woods, called Kruglick, in the name of our Great Empress Catherine Alekseyevna, and by order of Ataman (Cossack chief) Z.A. Chepega establishment of a military government and initial 40 kureney (households)." On January 1, 1794 the military government adopted "Order of the common good", a document regulating the management, resettlement and land management by the Black Sea Cossack forces, as well as made the name of the city official.

At the end of 19th century major railroad helped to transform the city into a major transport and industrial center of trade (bread, flour, tobacco, leather, wine, and other industries). In 1910-1911 the city built steel plant "Kubanol'" (now plant Sedina), in 1915-iron foundry, oil refinery, and so on.

(From Encyclopedic Dictionary of history of Kuban since ancient times until October 1917. Krasnodar, 1997).

Krasnodar geographically located in the Kuban-Priazov (Prikuban) Lowland, on the right bank of Kuban river (port). Host railway lines and roads, number of universities, an International Airport.

 

 

 

 

 

History of the Region

Krasnodar Territory is the most ancient Russian habitation of men who arrived here from the Transcaucasus as early as the Paleolithic period. The first settlements appeared here early, Kuban (Krasnodar Krai) lands were always of great interest.

The Scythians, the Taman dolmens, the petroglyphs of Makhoshkhush, the catacomb culture of the Caucasian hills, all have roots in this region.

The ancient Greeks and Sinds built the Bosporus state here during the 6th and 5th centuries B.C. The Bosporus state was later followed by the old Russian principality of Tmutarakan and the Khazar Kaganate.

In the Middle Ages the Republic of Genoa established colonies in Krasnodar region and during the Mongol-Tatar era the territory was invaded by the Golden Horde.

In 1735 the construction of the Caucasian fortification line began. The relations between the people of the Kuban and the Ottoman Empire became strained, leading to war between Russia and Turkey for control of the Black Sea regions.

Marshal Aleksandr Suvorov arrived in the Kuban on January 1778, and under his leadership 5 large fortresses and 20 redoubts were built on the bank of the Kuban River.

A Cossack delegation led by Anton Golovaty went to St. Petersburg on February 1792 to request permission to resettle in the Kuban (Krasnodar Region).

After obtaining a charter, Head Ataman (Cossack commander) Zachar Chepiga sent a Black Sea detachment of 3847 men from Bug to Taman.

In the year of 1793, began the construction of the city of Ekaterinodar (later renamed Krasnodar) as the administrative center of the Black Sea Cossack forces near the fortification.

After the revolution in 1917, the territory became a center of resistance to the Soviet regime; it was headed by the Kuban Council (Rada), which lasted until 1920.

In 1920 Ekaterinodar was given a new name Krasnodar. Since 1937 it became center of Krasnodar Krai. Following the end of the Civil War in 1921, Kuban-Black Sea Region was formed, in which the Adygean Autonomous Region appeared in 1922.

The territory was under German occupation during the World War 2, but was liberated as a result of an offensive in the battle for the Caucasus (in February 12, 1943 - Red Army liberated Krasnodar). There are 1556 memorials and memorial sites commemorating military actions in Krasnodar Territory in the Second World War.

The Kuban was the site of bloody battles; and it was here that the southward advance of Hitler's forces was halted. One of the greatest aerial battles of the war took place in Kuban skies. After the end of the war, Kuban residents restored the ruined economy, rebuilt cities and factories, and opened up new lands in the warm, fertile territory.

 

 

 

 

 

Krasnodar Territory General Information

Krasnodar Territory is located in the western part of the Greater Caucasus and on the Kuban-Azov (Kuban) Plain. It is the southernmost Russian region.

The territory was formed on September 13, 1937. It has an area of 76 000 km2 and a population of over 5 million. It is divided into 38 administrative districts, and includes 26 cities and 24 urban communities, with Krasnodar as the capital. The Republic of Adygea is also part of Krasnodar Territory.

Krasnodar Territory is one of the most attractive parts of Russia, with its boundless steppes and high forest-covered mountains. Russia's two southernmost seas, Black Sea and Sea of Azov, wash the foot of the Caucasus Mountains. The mountains are the source of the many rivers that carve their paths through deep gorges and canyons.

The territory borders Rostov Region in the north and northeast, Stavropol Territory in the east, and Abkhazia in the south. The southern and western boundaries follow the coasts of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov.

The border is 1540 km long, including 740 km of coastline. The territory extends a maximum of 372 km from north to south and 380 km from west to east.

The climate varies from temperate continental to subtropical. Average January temperatures range from -8 C in the mountains (above 2000 m) and -4 C on the plains, to +5 C on the seacoast; average July temperatures vary from +13 C in the mountains, to +23 C on the plains and coast. Precipitation ranges from 400 to 3200 mm annually.

The territory is a nature conservation zone distinguished by diverse plant and animal life. The Caucasus State Biosphere Reserve is located here. This natural research complex covers an area of 263,500 hectares and is part of the international national park system. A favorable climate, warm seas, mineral and mud springs, and scenic mountain and coastal landscapes have combined to make Krasnodar Territory one of the most important tourist regions of Russia.

Today, Krasnodar Territory has a population of 5.076 million (54% urban, 46% rural), or 3.2% of the population of the Russian Federation. The average population density is 66.7 people per km2, which is eight times higher than the Russian national average.

The territory's overwhelming majority population are Russians (85.1%), followed by Armenians (5%). The once numerous Ukrainians are now mostly assimilated. Other sizable groups include Greeks, Meskhetian Turks, Crimean Tatars, and Germans. Most residents of the central and northern districts are Russian-speaking, whereas the foothill, mountain, and coastal areas are multiethnic. One of the territory's ethnocultural features is the presence of Cossack settlements throughout the region. Cossacks make up an estimated one-fifth of the population and live mainly in Bryukhovetsky, Kushchevsky, and Slavyansky districts and in the vicinity of Novorossiysk and Krasnodar.

Krasnodar Territory is unique in its geographical location and climatic resources, as well as in its diverse natural landscapes and wealth of plant and animal life. The soils of the plains are mainly chernozems (black earths), and mountain-forest and mountain-meadow soils predominate in the mountains. The territory has a wide variety of mineral resources. Minerals produced here include oil, fuel gas, salt, hard coking coal, manganese ores, nickel, tin, copper ores, cement marl, volcanic muds, refractory clays, and lithographic stone. There are also huge deposits of construction and road-building materials, such as facing stone, shell rock, limestone, granite, marble, and more.

The fuel and energy complex accounts for more than 20% of the territory's industrial output. Krasnodar is considered an old oil-producing region of Russia. Oil has been produced there since 1864, and 68 oil fields are operating today. The main fields are in the western and central parts of the foothills (Abinsky, Seversky, and Apsheronsky districts). The refining industry is centered in Tuapse and Krasnodar.

With the highest quality soils and a favorable climate Krasnodar region has always been the principal "breadbasket" of the Russian Federation. It has 3% of all ploughed lands in Russia. It also has Russia's only specialized agricultural university. The region produces approximately 6% of meat and dairy products, 10% of all-Russian grain, 30% of fruit production, 60% of oilseed production, 90% of rice production and 97% of wine production. It is always in the top few in terms of agricultural indicators, often leading the pack. The agricultural significance of the region has truly emerged with the breakup of the Soviet Union and the consequential loss of large agricultural belts of Ukraine and Kazakhstan.

The Kuban borders two seas: the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. The Sea of Azov is classified as a large lake because of its relatively small area and shallowness. It is of great economic significance due its rich fisheries. The most valuable species are members of the sturgeon family (beluga, Russian sturgeon). A large number of fish hatcheries on the shores of the Sea of Azov raise young sturgeon, carp, and other valuable species, and the picturesque shores home to bird colonies.

The coastline from Adler to the Taman Peninsula is washed by the Black Sea, which joins with the Sea of Marmara in the south and the Sea of Azov in the north. The area has significant sea ports and seaside resorts with therapeutic mineral and mud springs, delightful foothills climate and beautiful scenery.

The territory's main river, the Kuban, is relatively short (906 km) but deep. It brings more than 12 billion m3 of water to the sea annually, although floods often occur during spring runoff and in summer, resulting in large-scale damage to the economy. Reservoirs and canals have been built in order to regulate water flows from the Kuban.

By virtue of its geographical location and climatic conditions, Krasnodar Territory is one of Russia's most attractive regions. Unique natural resources, rich mineral deposits, the Azov-Kuban basin (the largest in Europe) with its underground thermal and mineral springs, forests, fertile agricultural land, high industrial and agricultural potential, a construction industry base, sea ports, rail, and road network all create the necessary conditions for profitable investment in the regional economy.

The territory is involved in investment cooperation with more than 60 countries, and 773 companies with foreign capital are registered here. Of the total foreign capital attracted to the territory about 40% comes from investors in the United States, and 32% comes from Germany.

 

 

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